A sport in which 2 unarmed individuals struggle hand to hand with each attempting to subdue his opponent
Wrestling is one of the oldest sports: some forms are known to have existed 5000 years ago. Modern wrestling has many traditional forms. On an international level, there are two principal forms of wrestling: freestye and Greco-Roman.
In freestyle the opponents attempt to throw each to the mat and to secure holds which score points or which enable them to pin the opponent’s back to the mat. In freestyle, a wrestler is permitted to apply holds on his opponent’s legs and to use his legs to trip or throw his opponent and to apply holds.
Greco-Roman wrestling is basically a development of the Greek style employed in the pentathlon in the original Olympic Games, and it is identical to freestyle wrestling except that holds on the body below the waist and the use of the legs to hold or trip an opponent are prohibited.
Wrestling is conducted in weight classes. A match in amateur wrestling consists of three 3-minute periods (in college wrestling the first period is 2 minutes and the other two are 3 minutes each) with a 1-minute rest between.
A wrestler wins the match by securing a fall (pinning the opponent’s shoulders to the mat for a full second) or by accumulating the most points during the course of the match.
In college wrestling, an individual is awarded 2 points for bringing his opponent to the mat under control (a takedown), one point for escaping from a hold applied by the opponent (escape), 2 points for a reversal in which he gets out of a hold and at the same time gains one over the opponent, 2 points for a near fall in which the opponent’s shoulders are held close to the mat in a position that threatens a pin, and one point for having accumulated a full minute advantage in riding time.
There are certain actions and holds which are illegal in both freestyle and Greco-Roman.
These include choking, gouging, punching, elbowing, or kneeing an opponent, a headlock which covers the nose and mouth, a full nelson (grappling hold), a hammerlock in which the arm is bent at an angle greater than 90 degrees, and any hold used solely for punishment.
The match is conducted by a referee on the mat who signals for the wrestlers to start and stop, watches for illegal and improperly applied holds, signals when a wrestler has scored points, and indicates when one has secured a fall.